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An Automated Irrigation system that monitors moisture, water flow and water level.

The Arduino platform is an open-source tool that is employed for the construction of diverse electronic projects. The Arduino platform comprises a microcontroller, a circuit board that can be programmed, and an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) software that runs on a computer. The Integrated Development Environment (IDE) authorizes and uploads source code to the tangible board.

The Arduino can regulate and interact with various sensors through a fundamental programming language. The sensors possess the ability to measure a multitude of parameters, including but not limited to light, temperature, degree of flex, pressure, proximity, acceleration, carbon monoxide, radioactivity, humidity, and barometric pressure.

Sustainable management of water resources and access to safe water and sanitation is essential for unlocking economic growth and productivity and provide significant leverage for existing investments in health and education. The natural environment, e.g., forests, soils, and wetlands, contributes to the management and regulation of water availability and quality, strengthening the resilience of watersheds and complementing investments in physical infrastructure and institutional and regulatory arrangements for water access, use, and disaster preparedness. Water shortages undercut food security and the incomes of rural farmers while improving water management makes national economies and the agriculture and food sectors more resilient to rainfall variability and able to fulfill the needs of a growing population. Protecting and restoring water-related ecosystems and their biodiversity can ensure water purification and quality standards.

Sustainable Development Goal 6 goes beyond drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene to address the quality and sustainability of water resources, which are critical to the survival of people and the planet. The 2030 Agenda recognizes the centrality of water resources to sustainable development and the vital role that improved drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene play in progress in other areas, including health, education, and poverty reduction.

Automated irrigation refers to utilizing a mechanism to facilitate the operation of irrigation systems, allowing the alteration of water flows from bays to occur even in the absence of the irrigator.

Automation has various applications, including the initiation and cessation of irrigation via supply channel outlets, the activation and deactivation of pumps, and the diversion of water from one irrigation region, such as a bay or channel section, to another.

The modifications above manifest spontaneously without any direct manual intervention. However, some preparatory work may be necessary to initialize the irrigation system and ensure the optimal functioning of its constituent parts. The advantages of utilizing automated irrigation systems include the following:

- Labor reduction
- The practice of providing irrigation promptly involves watering plants as required. Managing increased flow rates is also a crucial aspect of irrigation management.
- The precision of water shut-off compared to manual inspection
- The decrease in water flow and nutrients
- Costs associated with vehicles utilized to inspect irrigation have been minimized.

Implementing the proposed irrigation systems can potentially increase public consciousness regarding the significance of unpolluted water for both botanical vitality and human welfare. The system facilitates the dissemination of data and information about water quality, thereby contributing to the knowledge of individuals, communities, and policymakers on the crucial role of clean water and sanitation in attaining sustainable development.

The subsequent tasks were incorporated into the design of the automated irrigation system based on Arduino to ensure optimal system performance, as presented below:

1. Implementing an Arduino-based Internet of Things (IoT) system for water quality sensing aims to ensure optimal water quality for plant growth.
2. The implementation of an automated system for watering plants based on soil moisture sensing technology
3. Water leakage detection systems that utilize water flow sensors
4. The present study investigates the feasibility of utilizing a waterproof ultrasonic sensor to detect water levels.”

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