“A short tutorial to start programming Arduino Uno without using the Arduino IDE.
In this tutorial, we are going to see how to program the Arduino Uno without using the Arduino IDE. We will see how the Arduino IDE works under the hood.
How Arduino IDE works
The Arduino IDE uses the avr-gcc compiler and avrdude to upload our program in the microcontroller. So, we are going to compile using avr-gcc the source code (written in C) to obtain the corresponding object file.
Then through avr-gcc, we link the system libraries to the object file to produce the executable or the ELF file.
Using avr-objcopy, we can translate the executable into a binary file that can be uploaded in the Arduino board using avrdude.”