A microcontroller programmer is a hardware device accompanied with software which is used to transfer the machine language code to the microcontroller EEPROM from the PC. The compiler converts the code written in languages like assembly, C, java etc to machine language code and stores it in a hex file. A microcontroller programmer acts as an interface between the PC and the target controller. The API software of the programmer reads data from the hex file stored on the PC and feeds it into the controller’s memory. The software transfers the data from the PC to the hardware using serial, parallel or USB port.

The micro controller, ATmega32 is programmed using the pins meant for SPI communication. Serial Peripheral Interface is a synchronous, full-duplex protocol. SPI is also known as “3-wire interface” protocol because it needs 3 communication lines named MISO, MOSI and SCK. SPI protocol needs two devices for communication. One of them is considered as a MASTER and another one as a SLAVE.

You can make your own circuit board at home using toner transfer method.

Use acircuit board designing software to convert the circuit schematic diagram into PCB layout.

To make the printout of mirror image of the PCB layout. Print should be taken on Glossy paper/Photo Paper using the Laser Printer.

To cut copper clad board in required size, according to our PCB layout design.

To put copper board upon the Printed layout, with copper side down towards the printed layout. Tightly to press the hot iron for some time. Heating the paper will transfer the ink to the copper board. If paper gets stuck to the plate, use warm water to remove the paper properly.

Our circuit layout under the black ink.

Remove all the other copper except the black lines using etching solution on base hydrogen peroxide.”