abbreviations

  • ADC: Analog-to-Digital Converter is a system that converts an analog signal into a digital signal. A digital-to-analog converter (DAC) performs the reverse function.
  • ASCII: American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard (the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) prefers the name US-ASCII). ASCII codes represent text in computers, telecommunications equipment, and other devices. Most modern character-encoding schemes are based on ASCII, although they support many additional characters.
  • BCD: binary-coded decimal is a class of binary encodings of decimal numbers where each decimal digit is represented by a fixed number of bits, usually four or eight. Special bit patterns are sometimes used for a sign or for other indications (e.g., error or overflow).
  • CMOS: Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor is a technology for constructing integrated circuits. CMOS technology is used in microprocessors, microcontrollers, static RAM, and other digital logic circuits.
  • CMRR: Common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR) of a differential amplifier (or other device) measures the ability of the device to reject common-mode signals, those that appear simultaneously and in-phase on both amplifier inputs.
  • CVD: Capacitive Voltage Divider are components used on complete capacitive voltage transformers (CVT) to measure the voltage on a high-voltage overhead power line. The CVD divides the line voltage (72.5 kV to 800 kV) to about 12 kV. The inductive part of the CVT (which is provided by a Maxwell Partner) isolates the measuring instrument from the high-voltage of the monitored circuit. CVTs are components used to measure the grid voltage in a conventional way.
  • D2PAK: standardized as TO-263, refers to a semiconductor package type intended for surface mounting on circuit boards.
  • DFN: dual-flat no-leads physically and electrically connect integrated circuits to printed circuit boards. Flat no-leads, also known as micro leadframe (MLF) and SON (small-outline no leads), is a surface-mount technology, one of several package technologies that connect ICs to the surfaces of PCBs without through-holes.
  • DPAK: Discrete Packaging. Developed by Motorola to house higher powered devices. Comes in three or five-terminal versions
  • EEPROM: Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers and other electronic devices to store relatively small amounts of data but allowing individual bytes to be erased and reprogrammed.
  • EIAJ: Electronic Industries Association of Japan was one of two Japanese electronics trade organizations that were merged into the Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association (JEITA).
  • EMI: Electromagnetic interference also called radio-frequency interference (RFI) when in the radio frequency spectrum, is a disturbance generated by an external source that affects an electrical circuit by electromagnetic induction, electrostatic coupling, or conduction.
  • ESD: Electrostatic discharge is the sudden flow of electricity between two electrically charged objects caused by contact, an electrical short, or dielectric breakdown.
  • GND: Ground or earth is the reference point in an electrical circuit from which voltages are measured, a common return path for electric current, or a direct physical connection to the Earth.
  • GPIO: General-purpose input/output is a generic pin on an integrated circuit or computer board whose behavior—including whether it is an input or output pin—is controllable by the user at run time.
  • HVAC: Heating, ventilation and air conditioning is the technology of indoor and vehicular environmental comfort. Its goal is to provide thermal comfort and acceptable indoor air quality. HVAC system design is a subdiscipline of mechanical engineering, based on the principles of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and heat transfer.
  • I2C: Inter-Integrated Circuit is a multi-master, multi-slave, single-ended, serial computer bus invented by Philips Semiconductor (now NXP Semiconductors). It is typically used for attaching lower-speed peripheral ICs to processors and microcontrollers in short-distance, intra-board communication.
  • JEDEC: Joint Electron Device Engineering Council is an independent semiconductor engineering trade organization and standardization body. Associated with the Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA), a trade association that represents all areas of the electronics industry in the United States, JEDEC has over 300 members, including some of the world’s largest computer companies.
  • JTAG: Joint Test Action Group is an electronics industry association formed in 1985 for developing a method of verifying designs and testing printed circuit boards after manufacture. In 1990 the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers codified the results of the effort in IEEE Standard 1149.1-1990, entitled Standard Test Access Port and Boundary-Scan Architecture.
  • LDO: low dropout is a DC linear voltage regulator that can regulate the output voltage even when the supply voltage is very close to the output voltage.
  • LED: Light-emitting diode is a two-lead semiconductor light source. It is a p–n junction diode, which emits light when activated.
  • MCU: Microcontroller unit is a small computer (SoC) on a single integrated circuit containing a processor core, memory, and programmable input/output peripherals.
  • MIPS: Millions of instructions per second.
  • MOSFET: Metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor is a type of transistor used for amplifying or switching electronic signals.
  • MSOP: Mini Small Outline Package
  • NFK: 18-lead PDIP package.
  • NPN is one of the two types of bipolar transistors, consisting of a layer of P-doped semiconductor (the “base”) between two N-doped layers.
  • OE: Output Enable
  • PDIP: Dual in-line package is an electronic component package with a rectangular housing and two parallel rows of electrical connecting pins. The package may be through-hole mounted to a printed circuit board or inserted in a socket.
  • PMOS: P-type metal-oxide-semiconductor logic uses p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) to implement logic gates and other digital circuits.
  • POR: Power-on Reset generator is a microcontroller or microprocessor peripheral that generates a reset signal when power is applied to the device. It ensures that the device starts operating in a known state.
  • PROM: programmable read-only memory is a form of digital memory where the setting of each bit is locked by a fuse or antifuse. It is one of the type of ROM (read-only memory).
  • PWM: Pulse-width modulation is a modulation technique used to encode a message into a pulsing signal. Although this modulation technique can be used to encode information for transmission, its main use is to allow the control of the power supplied to electrical devices, especially to inertial loads such as motors. In addition, PWM is one of the two principal algorithms used in photovoltaic solar battery chargers,[1] the other being maximum power point tracking.
  • QFN: quad-flat no-leads physically and electrically connect integrated circuits to printed circuit boards. Flat no-leads, also known as micro leadframe (MLF) and SON (small-outline no leads), is a surface-mount technology, one of several package technologies that connect ICs to the surfaces of PCBs without through-holes.
  • QSPI: queued serial peripheral interface is a type of SPI controller that uses a data queue to transfer data across the SPI bus.
  • RISC: Reduced instruction set computing is a CPU design strategy based on the insight that a simplified instruction set provides higher performance when combined with a microprocessor architecture capable of executing those instructions using fewer microprocessor cycles per instruction.
  • RTC: Real-time clock is a computer clock (most often in the form of an integrated circuit) that keeps track of the current time.
  • SAR: successive approximation register
  • SCL: Serial clock, a signal in I²C electronic messaging bus
  • SCSI: Small Computer System Interface is a set of standards for physically connecting and transferring data between computers and peripheral devices. The SCSI standards define commands, protocols, electrical and optical interfaces.
  • SDA: Serial Data Signal of an I²C electronic bus
  • SOIC: Small Outline Integrated Circuit is a surface-mounted integrated circuit (IC) package which occupies an area about 30–50% less than an equivalent dual in-line package (DIP), with a typical thickness that is 70% less. They are generally available in the same pin-outs as their counterpart DIP ICs. The convention for naming the package is SOIC or SO followed by the number of pins. For example, a 14-pin 4011 would be housed in an SOIC-14 or SO-14 package.
  • SPI: Serial Peripheral Interface bus is a synchronous serial communication interface specification used for short distance communication, primarily in embedded systems. The interface was developed by Motorola and has become a de facto standard. Typical applications include Secure Digital cards and liquid crystal displays.
  • SRAM: Static random-access memory is a type of semiconductor memory that uses bistable latching circuitry (flip-flop) to store each bit. SRAM exhibits data remanence, but it is still volatile in the conventional sense that data is eventually lost when the memory is not powered.
  • SSOP: Shrink small outline package chips have “gull wing” leads protruding from the two long sides, and a lead spacing of 0.0256 inches (0.65mm). 0.5mm lead spacing is less common, but not rare.
  • TQFP: Thin Quad Flat Package is a surface mount integrated circuit package with “gull wing” leads extending from each of the four sides. Socketing such packages is rare and through-hole mounting is not possible. Versions ranging from 32 to 304 pins with a pitch ranging from 0.4 to 1.0 mm are common.
  • TSSOP: Thin-shrink small outline package is a rectangular, thin body size component. A Type I TSSOP has legs protruding from the width portion of the package. A Type II TSSOP has the legs protruding from the length portion of the package. A TSSOP’s leg count can range from 8 to 64.
  • TTL: Transistor–transistor logic is a class of digital circuits built from bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) and resistors. It is called transistor–transistor logic because transistors perform both the logic function (e.g., AND) and the amplifying function (compare with resistor–transistor logic (RTL) and diode–transistor logic (DTL)).
  • UART: Universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter is a computer hardware device for asynchronous serial communication in which the data format and transmission speeds are configurable. The electric signaling levels and methods (such as differential signaling, etc.) are handled by a driver circuit external to the UART.
  • USART: Universal Synchronous/Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter is a type of a serial interface device that can be programmed to communicate asynchronously or synchronously.
  • VFD: Vacuum Fluorescent Display is a display device used commonly on consumer-electronics equipment such as video cassette recorders, car radios, and microwave ovens.
  • debugWIRE: is designed as a simpler alternative to JTAG, aimed at processors with limited resources. It is supported by most modern 8-bit AVRs. By using debugWIRE one has full read and write access to all memory and full control over the execution flow. It supports single-step, run-to-cursor, step-out, and software break instructions. The single undocumented hardware breakpoint can be used by selecting run-to-cursor.

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